Tokyo, Japan: 東都 都 The eastern capital of Japan is the capital of Japan, located on the eastern side of the four largest islands of the Japanese mainland – Honshu – and on the west bank of the Gulf of Tokyo and near the mouth of the Sumida River.    The capital of Japan since 1868, is today the political, economic and cultural center of the country.
The urban area of Tokyo occupies an area of 600 km²; it consists of 23 districts (in Japanese: 区 = ku), with a population of 12 million. Taking into account neighboring urban conglomerates, Tokyo is the world’s largest urban conglomeration, with an uninterrupted urban structure spanning 10,000 square kilometers, with more than 30 million people, including many small towns and three large cities: Yokohama, Kawasaki and Chiba , All located east of Tokyo.
The place occupied by the present city has been settled since the period of Jomon, and then became part of the royal territory (belonging to the emperor) during the periods of Nara and Heijan. During the Middle Ages, the region fell into the hands of the warriors from the nearby eastern plains. They established a military government in the southern part of Tokyo Bay: in the place called Kamakura, at the end of the 12th century. Today).
The city became the capital of Japan since the beginning of the 17th century and was a prosperous period during the Edo period, which had a population of 1 million in the 18th century. After the fall of the Shogunate system, during the period of transformation (see: Meiraj Miyagi), the role of the city diminished in favor of Kyoto (the imperial capital). But the court finally decided to move its capital to Edo, and it was renamed Tokyo “(meaning East Capital).
The city has developed and has become one of the world’s largest cities. During the beginning of the Meiji period, the ancient city was transformed, embracing the largest corporations, the first universities in the country and the first known industries activities. The appearance of the city was reversed in 1870, when the public lighting (gas operated) was installed on its streets, and the central station was built. The trains were transported to Yokohama City and from there to the rest of the country. Ten years later, tram lines began to invade the streets of the city. Construction of new government buildings in the Kasumigaseki district and the annexation of large corporate buildings in the Marunouchi district were completed. Most of these buildings were built in stone and according to Western plans, , And then its streets became lit by electric light.
By the 20th century, Tokyo had expanded: it had a dense urban fabric, exploited all vacant spaces along the West Bank of the Tokyo Bay, and then swallowed up new land to the north and east. The city has been devastated several times: fires and earthquakes have devastated many of its neighborhoods, and then came the Great Crusade in 1923 on more than half the buildings of the city. After two decades (20 years) air bombing campaigns during World War II killed more than 100,000 people and destroyed the entire fabric of the 100 km².
The reconstruction process took place at a rapid pace: new axes were drawn around the city; a special program for the construction of civil, governmental and administrative buildings was completed and completed in 1964 with the launch of the Olympic Games in Tokyo.
In Tokyo, business is almost no less. Because of the tremors that are causing serious damage to its buildings, most buildings are not built for more than a generation. The old wooden houses, which were rebuilt almost every 20 years, began to fade away, leaving their place for modern buildings, completed to withstand strong earthquakes. New buildings with a modern architectural style are taking their place in modern neighborhoods. These buildings challenge their high altitude natural hazards and earthquakes, and some residents object to them because they are obscured by the view of the sacred Mount Fuji
The wild part of Tokyo is located in the Bay of Tokyo, with a length of about 90 km from east to west, and 25 km from north to south. Tokyo’s average height is 40 meters. It is surrounded by Chiba Prefecture to the east, Yamanashi Prefecture to the west, Kanagawa Prefecture to the south, and Saitama to the north. Tokyo is divided into several additional divisions called the Special Circuits (located in the eastern half) and the Tama area in Japanese: 多 摩 地域 extends westward.
The administrative boundaries of Tokyo also include two islands located directly to the south in the Atlantic Ocean: Iso Islands, the Ogasawara Islands and stretches more than 1,000 kilometers away from the Tokyo Metropolitan Bank. Because of these two islands and the mountainous area of the west, Tokyo’s population density is not explicit, for the urban areas of Tokyo and its suburbs.
Japan is present under Japanese law, and its structure is similar to that of other Japanese provinces. Until 1943 Tokyo was only familiar with what is now known as 特別 区 (23), which are now separate autonomous municipalities, each containing a mayor and a council.
In addition to the 23 private neighborhoods, Tokyo also has 26 additional cities, called 市, five towns (Xu or Mashi) and eight villages (Sun or Mura), each with a local government. The Tokyo Metropolitan Government is run by all the attendees and is headed by a people-elected governor and a board of governors. It is headquartered in Shinjuku District
The city of Tokyo continues to be renewed and its works are almost endless. None of the urban plans have been adopted by its officials, so its urban texture seems diverse, and the city is more like a cluster of small villages that retain their unique character, such as a modern mega-city. The major streets, which were drawn up in the years 1950-1960 and modern buildings, are the main facade of the city, as are the old neighborhoods, small buildings consisting of one or two stories, temples, shrines and wooden buildings spread across them. The city offers its visitors a problematic and often inconsistent view, in which different architectural styles and various building materials and styles coexist. Unlike some, parks and green spaces in Tokyo are large and spacious, both in the city center and on the banks of the Sumida River.
Located in the ancient city of Edo, the Imperial Palace is the heart of the historic city. Where the green spaces are high and the residence of the imperial family rises in the middle, and the public is invited to visit the place. To the south and west, the Casamigaseki district is home to most of the official government bodies: the parliament, the residence of the prime minister, the ministers and the Supreme Court.
To the east of the Imperial Palace is the Maronooche District, one of the most important business centers in the city – and the country – where the headquarters of many major banking institutions are located. It is now the favorite shopping place for the city’s people. It is home to major shops, restaurants, cinemas and theaters. Traffic is prohibited on Sunday. Walk on his legs on the legs only.
After Genza, to the north and east, and to the Sumida River, the old city of Kasbah, where the popular Asakusa district, famous for its narrow and winding streets and spread through artisan shops, is active in this neighborhood. Senso Ji), which was dedicated to the figure of Kannon, the god of mercy according to Buddhism (according to Japanese tradition).
Modern neighborhoods have been built around the historical center of the city, mostly consisting of residential and commercial complexes, and together are the poles of the Samada San railway line around the city center:
Akihabara: Hundreds of electrical and electronics stores are gathering in this neighborhood,
Ueno: From the residential and university districts, there is a large park in the middle, with the largest museums in Tokyo,
Ikebukuro: A residential district with the largest commercial complex in the world,
Shinjuku: One of the new urban centers, with many skyscrapers, large corporate centers, large shops, hotels and restaurants, and hardly anyone to distinguish between night and day, for its vitality.
Other major districts are Harajaku, Shibuya and Shinagawa. These neighborhoods are located in the suburbs and vary in urban fabric
Since the Meiji period, Tokyo has become the hub of the country’s railways (the first line of 1871 was extended between Tokyo and Yokohama) and the capital reached almost all Japanese regions. The main stations in the city: Tokyo (main station), Ueno, Ikebukuro, Shinjuku and Shibuya, connect the city to the suburbs and form an urban belt around it, making it easy to reach. These stations receive about 2 million passengers a day. Suburban trains are used to connect the cities of the Greater Tokyo Metropolitan Area (Tokyo) with the city center, which extend to 100 km² from the heart of the city. Some lines, whose destination is at a considerable distance, are supported by a high-speed train called Shinkansen.
In Tokyo there are two companies running Metro network are Tokyo Metro and Tokyo Prefecture Transfer Office.
The Meiji period witnessed the construction of the first public land lines in the capital. Tram trains until the 1960s (the 20th century) were the most important means of transportation in the city. Later, the bus and subway lines were replaced by these lines. Since the beginning of the construction of the Meiji period, the networks of the lines continued to expand and develop. However, the earthquake that struck the capital in 1923 and the events of World War II caused great damage. The government began to establish new networks between the years 1950-1960. Many highways (on bridges) have been built, starting from the heart of the city towards the surrounding suburbs. However, despite the recent efforts to modernize these facilities, the problem of transportation remains, and Tokyo suffers from traffic congestion, like other major urban gatherings in the world.
Tokyo has two major airports in Japan: Haneda Airport, east of the city, serves domestic flights, and then Narita International Airport, opened in 1978, east of Tokyo, 55 kilometers away.
Tokyo and its urban complex form the financial, industrial and commercial pole of Japan. Industrial activities include: food, textiles and clothing, heavy industries, high technology (electronics, optics, cameras), mechanical constructions, automobiles, chemicals and others.
The port of Tokyo is relatively modern. Yokohama, Japan’s largest seaport and until the 1940s, continued to play the main port of the capital. The city bay is characterized by a low bottom level. A significant amount of soil had to be removed so that in the second half of the 20th century, new construction was established in Kawasaki, Tokyo and Chiba. The volume of cargo and loads managed by the port is increasing day by day, most of which takes its destination to the local market. Some of the most important products that are traded are foodstuffs and supplies destined for the capital markets, especially fish (Tsukiji market).
Tokyo occupies the first place at the national level in the fields of research, education and culture. The city has more than a third (1/3) of university colleges and about 45% of the country’s students study in it. Among the hundreds of public and private universities that receive Japanese youth, some have a long history, such as Tokyo Public University (Japanese: 東 学学 = Tkyky Da Daigaku). The Japanese shorten their name to my wishes (東 = = Tddai) and founded in 1877, University of Kew (founded 1868) and Waseda University (founded in 1882).
Tokyo has many public and private museums. The Ueno Park hosts many of them:
The Tokyo National Museum in Japanese: 東 立立 博物館 (Tokyo kokuritsu hakubutsukan): The largest museum in Japan, guarantees the artifacts of all other historical times, the number of exhibits is estimated at 80,000,
Horyuji homotsukan (Horyuji homotsukan): Rare artifacts dating back to the 7th and 8th centuries AD,
Shitamachi fuzoku shiryokan Museum: An old street in the traditional Asakusa district was rebuilt,
The National Museum of Western Art (Kokuritsu seiyo bijutsukan) presents the works of some great artists such as: Rennoir, Manet, Cézanne, Auguste Rodan and others.
The park also houses the National Museum of Science (Kokuritsu kagaku hakubutsukan): a public zoo.
Among the many other museums in Tokyo are the Tokyo kokuritsu kindai bijutsukan, Hatakeyama kinenkan, and displays paintings, ceramics and various collections for tea rites, the Nippon Mingeikan Folklore Museum, A collection of daily supplies dates back to the Edo period, housed in a traditional style brown house, the Ota kinen bijutsukan, and the Sumo hakubutsukan.
Tokyo is one of the world’s most famous cultural and artistic cities. The city has a lot of theaters, featuring traditional pieces of Japanese heritage, the Shibuya district is famous for its theaters, and the kabuki theaters in the Ginza district. In addition, the National Theater presents pieces of modern theater art. The city is famous for orchestras and offers contemporary, classical, traditional and international music. One of the main festivals in Tokyo each year is the Sano Festival, which takes place at the Hehe Shrine, and Sanja Matsuri, which takes place at Asakusa Shrine and Kanda Matsuri.
On the last Saturday of July, a fireworks launch is held on the Sumida River, where millions of visitors attend. In the spring people go to see the sakura (cherry blossom) in many parks such as Ueno Park, Enochashira Park, Shinjuku Gyein Park or Hamarikyu Gardens.
There are two base clubs in Tokyo: the giants Yomiuri (Tokyo Dome Stadium) and Yacoulette Sualloz (Meiji Jingu Stadium). The head office of Sumo Japan is also located in Tokyo, Ryugoku Kokogikan, where three Sumo dances are conducted annually. There are also two football teams, FC Tokyo and Tokyo Verdi. Tokyo hosted the Olympic Games of 1964 and has been awarded the right to host the Games of the Summer Olympics 2020.