Rome

Rome or Rome is the capital of Italy, the municipality and the largest city in the country and the most populated with more than 2.7 million people spread over 1,285.3 km 2. The city is located in the central western part of the Italian peninsula, on the Tiber in the Italian province of Lazio.
The history of Rome extends over two thousand and five hundred years. The city was the capital of the Roman kingdom and one of the birth places of Western civilization, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, which was the dominant force in Western Europe and the Mediterranean territory for more than 700 years from the first century BC until the seventh century AD. From the first century AD Rome became the seat of the Papacy and after the end of the Byzantine hegemony in the eighth century, it became the capital of the Papal State which lasted until 1870. In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy and then the capital of the Italian Republic in 1946.
After the Middle Ages, Rome ruled popes such as Alexander VI and Leo X who transformed the city into one of the main centers of the Italian Renaissance alongside Florence. [6] The present St. Peter’s Cathedral was built and the church of Sistina was decorated by Michelangelo. Famous artists and architects such as Bramante, Bernini and Raphael stayed for some time in Rome and contributed to its revival and Baroque architecture.
By 2010, Rome ranked Global Cities and Globalization as a world-class city + 7, as well as being the 28th most important city in the world. [8] In 2007, Rome was the 11th most visited city in the world, the third most visited in the European Union and the most attractive tourist city in Italy. [9] The city is one of the most successful European “signs” in terms of reputation or assets. [10] The historic city center is on the UNESCO World Heritage List. [11] Museums and monuments such as the Vatican Museum and the Colosseum are among the top 50 tourist destinations in the world (Vatican Museums receive 4.2 million tourists and the Colosseum 4 million annually). [12] Rome hosted the 1960 Summer Olympic Games and is now seeking to host the 2020 Summer Olympics

نتيجة بحث الصور عن صور مدينة روما

There are several hypotheses about the origin of the Rome designation. [15] The most important are:
Of Romulus (Romulus) Ben Ascanius the founder of the city.
Of Romon or Romain, the ancient name of the Tiber. It has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω and the Latin verb ruo, which means “flow”. [16]
Of the word rutum, whose root is rum – a “nipple” in a possible reference to the wolf symbol that adopted and nurtured the twins Romulus and Remus or the shape of the Platinum and Valentin hills.
From the Greek word ῤμμη which means “power”

There is archaeological evidence of human existence in the region of Rome dating back at least 14,000 years, but a thick layer of much younger debris obscures the sites of the ancient and modern stone age. [18] Evidence of the presence of stone tools, crockery and stone weapons attests to at least 10,000 years of human existence. While the power of the well-known tale of Rome’s mythic founding also tends to distract attention from its much older history.

Myths surround the early history of Rome. [19] According to Roman tradition, the city was founded by Romulus [20] on April 21, 753 BC. [21] The legendary origin of the city tells that Romulus and Ramos decided to build a city. After an argument, Romulus killed his brother Remus. The Roman poet Virgil referred to this belief when he photographed Enias Vara of Troy at the time of his fall, when he arrived in Latium to establish a lineage to Romeus the first king over Rome. Archaeological evidence supports the view that Rome grew out of pastoral settlements on the Palatine hill where the Roman Forum was later built. While some archaeologists argue that Rome was already founded in the middle of the eighth century BC and that the date of incorporation is still uncertain. [22] The original settlement evolved into the capital of the Roman Kingdom (governed by a series of seven kings, according to tradition) and then the Roman Republic (from 510 BC, ruled by the Senate), and finally the Roman Empire (from 27 BC, ruled by the Emperor). This success was based on military conquest and hegemony, as well as the selective assimilation of neighboring civilizations, most notably the Etruscan and the Greeks. Since the founding of Rome, despite the loss of some battles at times, it was not defeated in any war until 386 BC, when Gaul briefly occupied it. [23] According to legend, Gaul offered Rome to return to its people for a thousand pounds of gold, but the Romans refused and preferred to restore their city by force of arms rather than admit defeat and succeeded in regaining the same year.

The Republic was rich, strong and stable before it became an empire. According to tradition, Rome became a republic in 509 BC. However, it took a few centuries for Rome to become a big city in popular imagination and became only a great empire after the reign of Augustus (Octavian). By the third century BC, Rome was a prominent city on the Italian peninsula, having invaded and defeated the Sabinians, the Atrocans, the Samans, and most of the Greek colonies in Sicily, Campania and southern Italy in general. During the Punic wars between Rome and the great Carthaginian empire in the Mediterranean, Rome was elevated after becoming the capital of an overseas empire for the first time. At the beginning of the second century BC, Rome was subjected to a large population expansion as Italian farmers who were expelled from their lands in large numbers because of the emergence of farms that employed large numbers of slaves and called the name of Latifondia. The victory over Carthage in the First Punic War brought the first two provinces outside the Italian peninsula of Sicily and Corsica Sardinia. Followed by parts of Spain (Spain) and at the beginning of the second century the Romans intervened in the affairs of the Greek world. By that time all Hellenistic kingdoms and Greek city states were in decline, plagued by endless civil wars and relying on mercenary forces. This led to the fall of Greece after the Battle of Corinth (146 BC) and the imposition of Roman domination over Greece. [24]

The Roman Empire officially appeared when Emperor Augustus (63 BC-14 CE, known as Octavian before he took the throne) established the Principality in 27 BC. [26] It was a royal regime headed by the emperor with life-long authority, rather than making himself a dictator like Julius Caesar, leading to his assassination on March 15, 44 BC. [27] Emperor Augustus launched a major program of social, political and economic reform and the reconstruction of Rome. The city’s fascinating buildings, such as palaces, galleries and basilicas, have spread. Augustus became a great patron of the arts and his parish was attended by poets such as Virgil, Horace and Porretius. [26] His rule was also founded by Pax Romana, a long period of relative peace that lasted nearly 200 years. [28] He was followed by emperors like Caligula, Nero, Trajan and Hadrian to name a few. Roman Emperor Nero was known for his extravagance, cruelty, and tyranny. Myths state that the Emperor “played music while Rome was burning” during the night of 18 to 19 July 64 AD [29] It is believed that the Antonine plague between 165-180 has claimed the lives of about a third of the population. [30]

Roman hegemony extended to encompass most of Western Europe and the shores of the Mediterranean, although its influence across the client states and its enormous power was greater than its official borders. Its population exceeded one million. [31] For almost 700 years, Rome was the most politically, the largest and richest city in the Western world. After the decline of the Empire and the division began, the city lost its title to Milan and then to Ravenna, surpassed by the prestige of the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire of Constantinople, whose Greeks continued to call themselves Romanas over the centuries.

صورة ذات صلة

The Bishop of Rome became the Pope of the Catholic Church due to the increasing political and religious importance under the reign of Emperor Constantine I. The Pope made Rome the center of the Catholic Church. After the looting of Rome in 410 by the first Alaric and the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476, the Roman rule of the Byzantines and the Romanians alternated. Its population declined from more than 1 million in 210 AD to about 35,000 during the early Middle Ages, [32] making the sprawling city a cluster of inhabited buildings interspersed with vast areas of ruins and vegetation. Rome remained nominally part of the Byzantine Empire until 1751, when the Lombard finally defeated the archipelago of Ravenna, the last stronghold of the Byzantines in northern Italy. In 756, the short Pope gave the pope the temporal mandate over Rome and its surroundings, thus creating papal states. In 846, the Arabs conquered Rome and looted St. Peter’s Church. [33]
Rome remained the capital of the papal state until its annexation by the Kingdom of Italy in 1870. The city became a major pilgrimage during the Middle Ages and the center of the conflict between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire starting with Charlemagne, who was crowned the first emperor in Rome in 800 by Pope Leon III. Apart from brief periods when the city was independent during the Middle Ages, Rome remained the papal capital and “holy city” for centuries, even when the papacy briefly moved to Avignon (1309-1377).

The last half of the fifteenth century witnessed the transfer of the headquarters of the Italian Renaissance to Rome from the city of Florence. The papacy wanted to equalize the greatness of the Renaissance in other Italian cities and to surpass it. To this end, more churches, bridges, squares and public places were established than ever before, including the new Cathedral of St. Peter, the Church of Sistina and Ponte Sesto (the first bridge on the Tiber from ancient times) Navona. The Papates were also patrons of the arts and artists such as Michelangelo, Perugino, Rafael, Grandayo, Luca Senorelli, Botticelli and Cosimo Roselli.

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