Madrid (also known as Madrid) is the capital and largest city of the Kingdom of Spain. The population is 3.2 million (January 2011), with a population of 6.54 million. The city is 607 square kilometers (234 square miles).  The city lies on the banks of the Manzanares River in the center of Spain, Madrid is the fourth largest city of the European Union after Paris, London and Berlin. It has the headquarters of the Spanish government, the royal family, the most important companies of the country, 6 government universities and many higher institutes. Madrid is one of Europe’s most important cities strategically, culturally and economically. It is the fourth largest city in number of tourists in Europe and the first in Spain. The total number of tourists hosted by the city was about 7 million in 2006. It is the headquarters of the World Tourism Organization and the Tourism Fair (FITUR).
The city also houses the Museo del Prado, Real Madrid and Atletico Madrid, famous football clubs, government headquarters, the Spanish Parliament, ministries, institutions and agencies, and the official residence of the Spanish kings.  And city mayor Anna Potia of the center-right party People’s Party in office in 2011.
Due to the economic output, the standard of living and the market size, Madrid is a major financial center on the Iberian Peninsula and the headquarters of the vast majority of the largest Spanish companies. Madrid is the headquarters of some of the world’s top 100 companies (Telefonica, Repsol – YPF, Andesa).
Madrid has a modern infrastructure and has maintained the look and feel of many historic neighborhoods and streets. Madrid’s monumental landmarks include the Royal Palace of Madrid, the Teatro Real Madrid (the Royal Theater), 1850 the Opera House, the Bowen Retiro Park – founded in 1631 – and the National Library – founded in 1712 – with a collection of historical archives in Spain. And three art museums: the Prado Museum, which contains one of the most beautiful collections of art in the world, the National Museum of Commerce, the Queen Sofia Center, the Museum of Modern Art – Madrid, and the Taissen-Bournemesza Museum.
Madrid is located in the heart of Spain in the historic region of Castile and the Sierra de Guadarama mountain range is located in the north-west of the city. The Sierra de Guadarama Mountains rise to 2.429 meters above sea level at the top of Pinalara. From the east is Wadi Enares, which has road and rail links linking Madrid with Zaragoza and Barcelona. About 50 km south of Madrid is the ancient capital of Castile and the mother city of Madrid, the city of Toledo.
There are several theories that explain the origin of the name Madrid. According to legend, one of the foundations of Madrid is Ocno Bianor, son of King Tyrrhenius of Tuscany, and Mantua was the name of the city Metragirta or “Mantua”.
It is likely that the original city name Ursaria (“the land of bears” in Latin), for the high number of bears in the neighboring forests, which with the mulberry tree (in Spanish: madroño, madronio), symbol of the medieval city.
It is now known that the origin of the name Madrid came from the second century BC, and was built in the Roman Empire settlement on the banks of the river Manzanares. The name of the first village was Matrice “Matrice” on the name of the river. After the invasions of the Swivis, the Vandals, and the Allies during the fifth century AD, the Roman Empire was unable to defend its territory on the Iberian Peninsula, and was therefore dominated by Western people.
In the seventh century the Muslims dominated the Iberian peninsula and changed the name of Magyarit, from the Arabic term of the course and the Roman Iberian Ayat meaning “place”. The name of the modern Madrid “Madrid” evolved from the Mozartic Mozart “Matrit” matrices.
In comparison to other European capitals, Madrid is a modern city, dating back to 852 and 886 when the First Emir of Cordoba ordered the construction of a small palace located in the present royal palace in Madrid. This is the first historical record of stability in Madrid Islamic Period.  He established it for the purpose of making it a starting point for launching raids against Christian kingdoms in the north.
The surrounding area was called a “sewer” or water source. The place was haunted by Muslims and a few Jews and Christians. During this period, there appeared a mixture of two very similar places: European, matrice, meaning ‘source’, and other Arab, Majrà, meaning ‘canal’ or river. Both names refer to the abundance of streams and groundwater at the site.
Born in Madrid in the tenth century Abul-Qasim Musallama bin Ahmed al-Maghriti, who deserved the title of “Andalusian Andalusian”, founder of astronomy and mathematics at the school of Cordoba.
The Spanish state parliament was moved in 1561 and later the residence of the king in 1588 from the city of Toledo to Madrid by Philip II. Madrid was later considered the capital of Spain and began to grow and rise to take its place as the most important city in the country. Between 1701 and 1713 the wars of the Spanish Caliphate began, in which several European parties fought for the right to rule Spain after the death of King Charles II of Spain. The British and Portuguese took control of the city in 1706. The French took control of Madrid between 1808 and 1813, when Napoleon’s brother Bonaparte was proclaimed King of Spain. The French demolished a number of churches and even entire neighborhoods of Madrid to impose their authority and find a place for their establishments. The people of Madrid revolted on May 2, 1808 against the occupier and then followed most of the large Spanish cities. Today, shops and official offices in Madrid have been disrupted in commemoration of this revolution.
Between 1833 and 1876, the Castilian wars broke out and a cholera epidemic killed many Madridians in the same period. The country’s first republic was declared in the city in 1873 by dictator Emilio Castellar and later in 1923 by General Miguel Primo de Rivera. The Second Republic was proclaimed in Madrid on April 14, 1931. The Spanish Civil War broke out between 1936 and 1939 and Madrid was under Republican control until March 28, 1939. German and Italian warplanes bombed it extensively during the war. These countries supported the nationalists led by General Franco against the Republicans . Franco was able to control the city and the country until his rule until 1975 and saw Madrid in this period a significant growth. Workers and students organized a series of strikes in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
After his death, Franco arranged for the return of democratic life and the inauguration of King Juan Carlos I, in fact, in 1975 when Franco died. Some military officers organized a military coup (23-P) on 23 February 1981, threatening the restoration of democracy to the Spanish political system, but the coup failed quickly and things were restored. Madrid was declared a cultural capital of Europe in 1992.
The average altitude of Madrid is 667 meters above sea level. Climate of the Madrid region Moderate Mediterranean climate with winter cold, due to altitude, including snowfall and temperatures usually below 0 ° C (32 ° F). Summer tends to be free with temperatures above 30 ° C (86 ° F) in July and sometimes up to 40 ° C (104 ° F).
Rain levels are low, but rainfall is possible throughout the year. Summer and winter are most seasons in drought, most rainfall in the fall and spring. 
The Sierra de Guadarama Mountains are located in the north-west of the city, the Sierra de Guadarama Mountains reaching 2,429 meters above the surface of the top of Pinelara. From the east is Wadi Enares, which runs through land roads and railways connecting Madrid with Zaragoza and Barcelona. About 50 km south of Madrid, the ancient capital of Castile and the mother city of Madrid are located in Toledo.