London  (also known as Londres  and Londra and Londra) is the capital and largest city of the United Kingdom. Located on the River Thames in southern England. There are about 8.4 million people living in the city, about 2.7 of them in inner London neighborhoods. With a population of 15,010,295 in 2012, it will be Europe’s largest city and one of its most important political, economic and cultural centers. The current administrative division of London was formed on 1 April 1965 with the founding of Greater London. The city has a large number of universities, institutes, museums and theaters. Many international organizations and international companies are based in the city, specifically the city of London, which is independent from most parts of the capital
London was established in 43 AD, when the armies of the Roman Empire invaded Britain. The Romans built a port on the Thames, near the current London Bridge, and may have chosen this location; because the banks of the river east of this area were filled with swamps, making stability impossible. . The Romans called this harbor the name of the Landinium, and the name of London comes from this word. At the beginning of the third century AD, the Romans built a wall around London, perhaps to protect it from the raiders, and this wall and the walls that replaced it served as the borders of London for hundreds of years. In 410 CE, the barbarians attacked Rome. The Romanian troops in Britain were summoned to return home and to repel the invaders. This year marks the end of Roman rule over Britain. Little remains of Roman London except for some parts of the old wall that still exist and the remains of some buildings.
Little progress was made in London between the 5th and 11th centuries AD, but in the middle of the eleventh century the Saxon King Edward the Confessor built a palace and rebuilt a church three kilometers south-west of London. The Saxon kings before that They live in Winchester in the middle of southern England. The buildings built by Edward were the first brick of the city of Westminster. The Westminster Palace became the seat of the rulers of England until the 1920s. The Church was built by the Westminster Church in which William the Gaseous was crowned in 1066. William granted autonomy to the people of London. Many cathedrals and castles, also began to build the Tower of London. The other landmarks of London began to emerge during the Middle Ages around 1100 AD and the work of St. Paul’s old cathedral began to replace the church that was destroyed in the fire, which was completed two hundred years later. In 1209, the London Bridge became the first stone bridge to be built across the River Tamaz. The trade and professional associations began to grow in the twelfth century, and each association represented a certain group of professional or trade-related workers, such as bakers, carpenters, daggers and baklins. These associations were also called uniforms, because each group had its own uniforms , And members of the Association wore this uniform on certain occasions. The members of these associations were elected the first mayor of London in the 1290s, and in 1215 King John affirmed London’s right to govern itself. At the end of the fifteenth century AD, London had about 50,000 inhabitants and its baptism became significant, He even became known as Lord the Mayor.
The disasters struck London in the mid-17th century. The power struggle between King Charles I and the House of Representatives led to civil war in 1642, and London became a member of the Chamber of Deputies under the leadership of Ulverkrumol, where the economic situation deteriorated. The Great Plague hit London in 1665, a deadly plague of plague, and before the end of the epidemic in 1666, it had killed about 100,000 people. On September 2, 1666, the big fire broke out in a bakery shop on Budding Street in the city. The fire was only controlled five days later. As a result, most parts of the wooded city were turned into ashes. The damage to the fire was Saint Paul’s Cathedral and some 13,000 homes, but only limited casualties.
The people of London came back to build it, using bricks, and stone instead of wood. The famous architect Christopher Ren has reconstructed many of the facilities destroyed by the fire, including St. Paul’s Cathedral, but few people returned to the city. Business in London quickly compensated for the loss of the fire. A new stock exchange was opened in about 1675, but business negotiation venues were concentrated in the many cafés that spread within or near the city. Lloyds Insurance Company began its work at Edward Lloyd’s Cafe in the 1880s. The London Stock Exchange In the early 18th century in a coffee shop called Jonathan’s Cafe
During the war, the architects planned a new layout for London, creating a wide belt area of open land, or a green belt around London, and around the new cities that will be established outside the belt. The plan was to rebuild heavily bombed areas and develop the southern bank. In the 1960s, skyscrapers began to appear in central London, which changed much of the landscape over the city. As the process of building the vertical of London began to spread the city horizontally, London was replaced by the Greater London district by the Law of Government in London, which was approved by the House of Representatives in 1963. One of the provisions of this law was the division of Greater London into thirty-two constituencies, and the formation of the Greater London Council. In the 1980s, many objected to the formation of this council and saw that it could not govern effectively. For this reason and for other reasons, this council was abolished by a decision of the House of Representatives in 1986. The responsibility of local government was transferred to thirty-two departments. London has long been known to draw smoke from homes and factories. The heavy smoke hauled 4,000 people from London in 1952, and the House of Representatives passed the Clean Air Act in 1956. This law makes use of smoke-producing substances in London. In the 1970s, the atmosphere was observed in London. Traffic remains one of the worst problems facing London. The government has proposed building new highways in central London, but many people have opposed the project because it requires moving hundreds of families from their homes. To ease some of the traffic problems, the government set up a highway called M25, a round road around London, which opened in 1986. In 1981, the Government established the London Port Development Authority to develop and improve the abandoned land around the dock area in East London. The mission was to attract new investments and new residents to this area. In 1987, the railway line of the port was opened to connect the area with public transport lines. In a referendum in 1998, London residents approved the creation of the Greater London Authority instead of the Greater London Council, which was abolished in 1985.
In 1800 the population of London was about one million people, more than any city in the world at the time. During the industrial revolution of the nineteenth century, London established markets for the products of its factories, and collected the city’s merchants and bankers with great wealth, but many workers were suffering from extreme poverty, living in slums crowded with diseases and epidemics
During the nineteenth century a large number of Londoners moved to the outskirts of the city, and one of the main reasons for this rapid growth of the suburbs, the improvement in transport. The first reform of the London system took place in 1888. The province of London was formed this year, and the London County Council was formed as its governing body. The province covered about one-fifth of the size of Greater London. Air strikes. In the summer of 1940, Germany launched a fierce air attack on Britain. London was one of its most important targets. The air strike was known as the Thunderbolt. It lasted from September 1940 until May 1941. German planes pounded the city’s urban areas night after night.
“And with the coast eastward to the city of Debres seventy miles, which is also a large city and is at the top of the metaphor that allows them to land connected to the large land. And from Debrecen to the city of London on the mainland forty miles on a large river flowing into the sea between the city of Debrec and the city of Grnomode. Jrnmudh city good city on the bank of the sea. From the city of Debrecis to the location of the River London in the sea twenty miles and from the location of this river to the city of Gronmodh mentioned forty miles from the city of Debres to Grunmode on the sea sixty miles. And the river of London named Rantzah and this river is a lot of running watery and running from the center of the island of Faisal to the city of the park fled about fifty miles and passes through the south of the city of Fret Vemer, including to the city of London mentioned forty miles and then passes from London pour into the sea as we mentioned »- Idrissi, The longing to penetrate the horizons
London extends about 40 km on the banks of the River Tamaz, with an average elevation of 62 meters above sea level. The city was founded originally on the north bank. For many ages the Tower of London Bridge was the only bridge connecting the two banks of the city. The city center, the business district and the important streets are located on the north bank of the river. With the construction of other bridges and the extension of railway lines, the city expanded in all directions. The nature of London generally flat. In the past, the Tamaz River was wider than it is now, with a number of dams built on it. Because of its proximity to the North Sea, London has been vulnerable to a number of floods. The geographic longitude is determined by the Royal Observatory in Greenwich as latitude zero. It is today the line on which to calculate the difference in time zones in the world
London Heathrow Airport (IATA: LHR, ICAO: EGLL) is an international airport west of London, the largest airport in Heathrow and the third busiest airport in the world.
London Gatwick Airport (IATA: LGW, ICAO: EGKK) is an international airport located in Crawley, West Sussex, south London, 45.7 km from London and second only to London Heathrow Airport And the United Kingdom. It ranks 28th in the world in terms of passenger passengers.
London Stansted Airport (IATA: STN, ICAO: EGSS) is an international airport located northeast of London near the town of Stansted Mountfest in West Sussex County. It is about 48 km from central London and ranks third after Heathrow Airport Gatwick Airport at the London and United Kingdom levels. 
London Luton Airport (IATA: LTN, ICAO: EGGW) is an international airport located in Luton, in the county of Bedfordshire, east London. It is 56.5 kilometers from central London and ranks fourth among five international airports serving the region. London.
Big Ben Tower: Also known as the Clock Tower because of the famous Big Ben clock.
The Tower of London Bridge: The first bridge built in the city above the River Tamaz.
St. Paul’s Cathedral: The most important church in London.
Westminster Abbey: The tombs of the kings of the country.
Westminster Palace: A British Parliament building that houses the House of Commons and the House of Lords.
London Municipality Building.
Royal palaces in St. James, Kingston and Buckingham.
Madame Tesod Museum: also known as the Wax Museum.
The British Museum.
National Museum, London
Natural History Museum
The Scientific Museum
Museum of Victoria and Albert
The rapid industrial revolution led to a large population growth during the 19th and early 20th centuries, and London continued to be the world’s most populous city until 1925 when New York received the title. In 1939, the population was 8,615,245, and by mid-2006 the number of official residents in Greater London was 7,512,400. However, in 2001, urban civilization beyond the borders of Greater London housed 8.278.251. The total number of urban areas is between 12 and 14 million (different according to the definition of urban areas). According to Lerustat, London is the busiest city in the European Union and the second in Europe (third if we consider Istanbul to be in Europe).
The area is about 604 square miles (1.579 square kilometers) with a population density of 12,331 people per square mile (the equivalent of 4,761 inhabitants per square kilometer), which is 10 times larger than any other region in England. For pollution, London is 25th. The ranking seventeenth in the size of civilized urban areas. It also ranks fourth in the number of billionaires (in US dollars). London is one of the world’s most expensive cities in the cost of living with Tokyo and Moscow
With the passage of time, London lost its leading industrial position in Britain. Today, the industrial sector accounts for only 10% of the city’s employers. Printing and publishing houses play an important role in this sector. Where a quarter of workers in the industrial sector and one-third of the overall production of London. The pharmaceutical, electrical and electronic industries still play an important role in the city, but there are plans for most of these companies and factories to leave the city in the future. The light industry is clothing and food industries.
Through the river port of London, 10% of the total export and import traffic to Britain is operated. The annual economic growth of the city since 1971 has been 1.4% lower than the country’s overall average of 1.9%. However, the services sector in the city, especially banks and insurance companies, is a source of revenue and commercial traffic for the city and for Britain in general. The Kingdom’s main stock exchange is London, the London Stock Exchange, the third-largest stock exchange in the world after New York and Tokyo. Lloyd’s insurance company, one of the largest insurance companies in the world, is based in London. About 20 million tourists visit London every year, making the tourism sector one of the lucrative sectors of the city’s economy. Transport for London operates the city’s public rail and bus traffic. London is the most important air transport center in the world. The city has five international airports, with 120 million passengers a year. The five airports are Heathrow Airport, Gatwick Airport, Luton Airport, Stansted Airport and City Airport. London’s underground rail system is the oldest in the world and dates back to 1863 and today is a total of 415 km long. There are eight major train stations in London, including the Charing Cross Station, Euston Station, King’s Cross Station, Liverpool Street Station, Paddington Station, St Pancras Station Pancras Station, Victoria Station, Waterloo Station and London Bridge Station.
Many Londoners enjoy going to high-end street markets, selling everything from fruits and fresh vegetables to rare jewelry and antiques. One of the most popular street markets is the Batikot Road, Middlesex Road on the eastern edge of the city, the Brick Street Market in Soho, and the Portobello Road Market, near Kensington Gardens.
One of the most popular sports is the popularity of football. There are several professional clubs that play in the football league, which runs from August until April, and the most important matches are held at Wembley Stadium, which can accommodate 80,000 spectators. These matches include final football, and international matches. Another popular sport is amateur rugby. The season lasts from September to April, and rugby matches are held at Twickenham rugby stadiums in Richmond on the River Tamaz.
Cricket matches are held during the spring and summer. The Lourdes Cricket Grounds, located west of Regent’s Garden, are the international cricket headquarters. The stadiums in Lambeth are other historic cricket grounds.
London residents enjoy other sports, such as golf, horseback riding, tennis, and great sports facilities at the Crystal Palace National Sports Center, located in the Bromley district. Wembley Tennis is held in late June and early July each year. Wimbledon Park, the Merton Circuit and these games are one of the most famous tennis games in the world. There are more than 2,300 licensed mortgage offices in London, where people bet on various sports, including horse racing
The University of London is the largest university in Britain and Europe, with about 100,000 students and many colleges, which are almost administratively separate from the university. The most important of these colleges are:
University College London University College London (UCL)
Imperial College Imperial College
King’s College London
London School of Economics
Institute of Oriental and African Studies School of Oriental and African Studies
Institute of Education
From other universities in the city:
University of East London
University of Middlesex [English]