Cairo is the capital of the Arab Republic of Egypt and the largest and most important city of all, and is the largest Arab city in terms of population and area,  and ranked second in Africa and 17th in the world in terms of population,   Statistics for 2015 represent 10.6% of the total population of Egypt.
The city of Cairo is one of the most culturally and culturally diverse cities. It has witnessed many different historical periods throughout the ages. It has many ancient and modern monuments. It has become an open museum with Pharaonic, Greek, Roman, Coptic and Islamic monuments. The history of the city dates back to the creation of En Pharaonic or Heliopolis Ain Shams, which is one of the oldest cities in the ancient world. The city of Cairo, in its current style, dates back to the Islamic conquest of Egypt by Amr ibn al-Aas in 641 and the establishment of the city of Fustat, then the establishment of the Abbasids of the city of the military, the construction of Ahmad ibn Tulun for the city of Qata’i, and with the entry of the Fatimids Egypt, In the construction of the new capital of the Fatimid state by order of the Fatimid caliph al-Mu’izz Ladinullah in 969, and the Caliph called it “Cairo”. Throughout the ages, Cairo has been known as the City of the Thousand Minarets, Egypt Al Mahrousa and Cairo El Moez. During the Islamic era, Cairo witnessed the finest architecture in the construction of castles, forts, fences, schools and mosques, giving it an aesthetic glimpse of its old neighborhoods.
Cairo is a governorate and a city. It is a province that occupies a whole area of one city. At the same time, it is a large city that is a province of its own. It is divided into 37 neighborhoods. Cairo celebrates its national day on July 6 every year. In 969, to the age of Cairo now more than 1044 years.  
Cairo is also home to several regional and international organizations, with the headquarters of the League of Arab States and the regional offices of WHO, FAO, ICAO, ITU, UNFPA, UN Women, Headquarters of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), as well as the headquarters of the African Basketball Federation.
There were different rumors about why Cairo was named by this name. It was said that Jawhar al-Saqli named the city at the beginning of Mansuriyah after the name of the city of Mansuriya, which he established outside Kairouan, Egypt, called the “Cairo”, after four years of its establishment, optimistic that it will conquer the rival Abbasid state of the Fatimids, and was said to have called it in Cairo to conquer the world, or it was named in relation to the planet planet Mars And the city of Cairo several names are delicious Such as Egypt Al Mahrousa, Qahir El Moez, the City of the Millennium Minaret, Jewel of the East
Cairo gained its status and influence on various civilizations thanks to its strategic location chosen by the people of Egypt since the dawn of civilization. It was distinguished from the rest of the historical capitals as a continuation. Its development was a series of episodes that began with the city of En in the pre-familial period. The era of the families at the hands of King Mina, while Memphis was the first administrative and political capital of Egypt after the stability of the unit. : 5 Following the Islamic conquest of Egypt in 18 AH / 639 AD, Amr ibn al-Aas built the city of Fustat in the year 21 AH / 641 AD, and built a mosque known as his name, and then entered the places of residence Arab tribes. After the establishment of the Abbasid state and the elimination of the Umayyad state, the Abbasids established the city of the military in a place known as the Red Hamza, located northeast of Fustat, where they built their homes and dwellings. Salih bin Ali built the emirate’s house and the army barracks. Then al-Fadhl ibn Saleh built the Askar mosque. They became a big city where roads were paved and mosques and markets were built. Until Ahmed ibn Tulun ruled Egypt and saw that the city of the military can not accommodate his captors and soldiers, and he went up to the mountain of Mokattam and saw between the military and Mokattam a land of space and took place in his new town, which was called al-Qataa’i. After nearly 100 years of establishment of the sects, the Fatimids entered Egypt under the leadership of Jowhar al-Saqali, a delegate of the caliph al-Mu’izz Ladinullah. He established the base of Cairo in the north-east of al-Qata’i. He also established the foundation of the great Fatimid palace.
The ancient city of Anoun, located in the area of Al-Matareya and Ain Shams, was one of the most prominent centers of ancient Egyptian culture. It was mentioned in the ancient Egyptian dialect as “Ono Horizon Sky” and “Ano Sky of Egypt” and considered it the seat of the chosen gods and the birthplace of each idol. In Greek “Heliopolis” meaning the city of the sun. The city had its political past, where it was one of the oldest capitals of United Egypt at the dawn of history, as a result of the efforts of its leaders, who established the first unit of the two faces preceded the unity that was carried out by King Mina. And ensured the city’s fame in philosophy and religion presented its doctrine in the interpretation of the emergence of existence. In astronomy, the city’s fame is due to the creation of the solar calendar that characterized the Egyptian civilization. Although the city of On did not play a prominent political role in the historical ages, but it has retained the cultural and civilizational and religious status and the keenness of the kings to leave their effects through the ages, and resulted in modern fossils of many of the effects that indicate that the upper part of a small stone The sandstone dates back to the reign of King Teti of the ancient state. Among the effects of the Middle Kingdom was a red granite obelisk set up by King Senusert I, the remains of the pharaoh Tuthmosis the Third, a number of limestone paintings and part of an archaeological statue. The remains of the Temple of King Ramesses III, a number of capitals and parts of columns and statues of the Sphinx, are the remains of the modern state.
The city of Babylon is located in the Coptic Cairo area. It was built by Ramses II and took its name from the Babylonian prisoners who rebelled against it. The city was famous in the Roman era under Emperor August, and was ordered to be rebuilt by Emperor Trajan in 130 BC. The fortress was converted into a military city, and the fort was renovated and enlarged by the Roman Emperor Arcadius in the fourth century AD. In the building of the fortress were used stones from Pharaonic temples and completed with red bricks. Only the tribal door that is surrounded by two large towers remained. The two towers were built above one of the towers. The Roman church of St. George was built on top of the other tower. St. John the Sorcerer, the Basilica of the Virgin, the Rihan Monastery, the St. George’s Monastery of the Sisters, the Church of St. Barbara and the Temple of the Jews. The Roman fort is known as the Wax Palace or the Babylonian Fortress. Its area is about half a square kilometer. In 641 the fortress fell in the hands of Amr ibn al-Aas after a siege lasted about seven months in the spring of April 18 AH / 16 April 641 AD, and his fall was the entry of Islam in Egypt. Amr ibn al-Aas chose a strategic location north of the fortress of Babylon and established the city of Fustat and inside it the fortress of Babylon to be a city for Arab soldiers.
Fustat took its name from the tent of Amr ibn al-Aas, which he established in the middle of his camp, and established by Amr ibn al-Aas north of the fort of Babylon, and ordered its planning to be the first capital of Islam in Egypt instead of Alexandria, and in the center of the city set up a prayer mosque named after him and famous for its four beacons, And Amr Amr Ibn al-Aas four of the Muslims to organize the city are Muawiya bin Khadij Tijeibi, Shrek bin Sami Algatifi, Amr bin Mahzam Kholani, Jibril bin publisher Maafri. Fustat is famous for its cobblestone streets and spacious houses with water fountains and indoor gardens. The markets were mostly located on the Nile shore, unlike the markets around the mosque. The choice of the location of the city was easily defended for natural reasons. The Nile is bordered by the west and Mount Mokattam from the east, which formed a natural barrier against any external aggression
Al-Askar is the second Islamic capital in Egypt and was established by the Abbasids in a place known as Al-Hamra Al-Aqsa, located north-east of Al-Fustat, where they built their homes and dwellings. Salih bin Ali built the emirate’s house and the army barracks or Dar al-Askar. The military. The city is an extension of the planning and urban trends of the city of Fustat. It was built by Al Amara, built houses and palaces and expanded its cities until it merged with Fustat. Egypt ruled 65 of them over 120 years.
Al-Qataa’i is the city founded by Ahmed Ibn Tulun, becoming the third Islamic capital in Egypt. Its name derives from its planning system, which is transferred from the city of Samarra, in which Ibn Tulun was built. It is a cross-sectional plan consisting of residential plots belonging to a group of people with a link, One, the so-called pieces. In the year 876 AD Ibn Tulun celebrated the laying of the foundation of the mosque, which was named after him on Mount Yashkar, which was built in two years and is located in the middle of the city. The city is one of the largest mosques in the Islamic world with an area of 26500 square meters. It is known as the Hanging Mosque as it ascends to its doors with round staircases. Ibn Tulun established the first hospital in Egypt in the orchard area. All those connected with the government, the administration of the country and the army were transferred to the city, and the public was not allowed to live there. Al-Qata’i remained the capital of Egypt during the reign of Touloni, which lasted 27 years until the year 293 AH / 905 AD, with the arrival of the Abbasid army to Egypt, which wiped the areas and around them to the ruins while retaining the mosque, and the city of the military until the entry of the Fatimids
About 100 years after the establishment of Al Qataim, the Fatimid army of Morocco was brought to Egypt by Jowhar Al-Saqli, a delegate of the Caliph Al-Mu’izz Ladinullah. He arrived in Fustat on 11 Sha’ban 358 AH / 969 AD. He entered the following day and went down with his soldiers in the north And established the basis of the Fatimid palace on the 18th of Sha’ban 358 AH, and proceeded to build the Al-Azhar Mosque in Jumadi I in 359 AH April 970 AD. The city was built on an area of 340 acres, and built around it a wall of milk square shape along both sides of the north and south 1500 arm, and the eastern and western sides of 1700 arm, and each side of the sides of the fence two gates, the northern rib by the door of victory and Bab al-Fotouh, ) And the earrings (burned), and the south facing Fustat at the door of creation and the door of Zuwaila (Metwalli) and the door of the vulva, and the West by the door of Qantara and Bab Saada. The city began as a military city that included princes’ houses, government offices and coffers. In 973, the city became the capital of the Fatimid state when Mu’izz Ladinullah of Morocco moved to it. 120 years after the establishment of Cairo, the Emir of the armies Badr al-Jamali and was the minister of the Caliph Al-Mustansir God that people were built outside the wall of Cairo because of the expansion of urban, surrounded by the wall of the link in the wall of Juhar in 480 AH / 1087 m, and erected the new wall of milk and doors of stones
Sultan Nur al-Din Mahmud sent a campaign to Egypt to expel the Crusaders led by Asad al-Din Shirkuh, who was accompanied by Salah al-Din, nephew of his brother Najmuddin Ayoub. Following the death of Shirkuh and the Caliph, Salah al-Din, the Egyptian minister, became the first man in the country. Then Salah al-Din took over the matter and weakened the order to patronize and demolish the house of knowledge and built it a Shafi’i school and built Dar al-Ghazl for al-Malikiyya, isolating the Shiite judges and setting up a judge in Egypt. : 4: 103 Instead of establishing Saladin as a new capital, The outskirts of the four cities (Fustat, Al Askar, Qataim and Fatimid Cairo) were to be the capital of the state. Cairo went out of its old walls and extended its planning to the mountain fortress, which remained the seat of the rule of Egypt in the various eras that followed the rule of the Ayyubids. Abdeen Palace. In 569 AH, Baha Eddin Qaraqouche commissioned a wall around Cairo with its new borders. It increased in the Cairo wall extending from the gate of Qatatara to Bab al-Sha’ariyya, from the gate of Sha’ariyya to Bab al-Bahr and then in the section following the door of victory to the tower of the nail. The cable and from it to the path of Batut and outside the door of the minister to connect with the wall of the castle of the mountain. One of the features of this era that still remains, the eyes of the well of Joseph and the arcades of the stream of water that carries water to the castle.
The Mamluk era is the golden age of Cairo, especially after the collapse of the crusades in the Levant, and the Mamluks defeated the Mongols. During the reign of Al-Zaher Baybars, Cairo extended northward outside its walls in Husseiniya, and built a magnificent mosque known as Al-Zaher Mosque. It was also known as the Mosque of Al-Safa. It also built many buildings in the citadel of Saladin. Many buildings, quarters, squares, houses, mosques and bathrooms have added a touch of beauty and beauty to the city. : 39
Dish of Sultan Sultan bin Nasser Mosque
During the reign of the Qalawun family, which ruled Egypt for nearly 100 years, Mansur Qalawun built a number of rare buildings, including the Al-Jalila School and his tomb or shrine. He established the Marastan and made it an end to all sects from the king to the slaves. In the days of Sultan al-Nasir Muhammad ibn Qalawun, Cairo extended to the north through the desert, the northwest, and the west, as well, with the Nile that gradually produced a new land west of Cairo. The Mamluk princes did not leave a piece of land inside Cairo except in mosques, schools, baths, roads, agencies and shrines. Prosperity of the city flourished and trade and princes and dignitaries raced to build the finest architecture. Sultan al-Nasir al-Amara loved Cairo’s finest buildings and established a palace for games and competitions among the princes. He built many of the palaces inside the citadel and built the minaret of the minaret that still exists. In his day Egypt visited the traveler Ibn Battuta in 1326. During the reign of the Mamluks, the historian Taqi al-Din al-Maqrizi was born. He wrote an important encyclopedia about the plans of Egypt and Cairo in particular, describing the beauty of Cairo architecture and its arts. : 41: 63 During the reign of the Mamluks of the Circassians, their love for the beautiful cities and the good taste appeared. Their sultans, their rulers and the mosques and mosques, among them the King Al-Zaher Barqouq Mosque The Mosque of King Al-Moayyed Sheikh next to Bab Zuwaila, Sultan Al-Ashraf Al-Ashraf Mosque in Rasbay, Sultan Al-Ashraf Qaitbay Mosque, and Sultan Qansouh Mosque. Ghouri
Sultan took control of Egypt and began to support his authority, making it a governor called Balasha, and to ensure that the Pasha left the Astana and travel in Egypt, made in Egypt three departments each watching the other, so as not to fear of the union or rebellion, was the first force is “Pasha” Its main task is to inform the royal orders to the men of the government and the people and to monitor their implementation. The second force is the “six thugs” and its duty is to preserve order and defend the Egyptian country. The third force is the Mamluks, the remnants of the Mamluks and the Circassians. Between the Pasha and the jugs Because they are enemies of both teams. The Mamluk princes remained the real power of the country, and their influence increased with the diminishing influence of the High Gate and the diminution of its influence in Egypt. : 193: 194 One of the effects of this period is still the mosque of Mohammed Bey Abu-Zahab towards the Al-Azhar mosque,  218 and the city of Abderrahmane Katkhda, “governor of Egypt”, which was fond of building and established and renewed a lot of mosques and roads and shrines, and was at the forefront of the beautification of Cairo, and this is reflected in the wonderful way at the intersection of the streets of copper and aesthetic known as his name until today, Al-Fotouh is a mosque and a book. He was added to the mosque of Al-Azhar Mosque and built a new mihrab He built a platform and built a great door for him and built an office for the education of orphans of Muslim children. He built the Tibarsian school and established at the door of the cable “Bab al-Gharib” a mosque, a mosque, a mosque, an office, Mrs. Fatima and Ms. Ruqaya, and the new Al-Mansur al-Mansouri, and the house was inhabited by the Abdeen sailors from the great role of the court of the situation and mastery.
The Cairo Khedive title dates back to the first ruler of Egypt, the Khedive Ismail, who assumed the throne of Egypt on January 18, 1863, giving Cairo a new shining face and defining its cultural features through achievements that remained engraved on the walls of its modern buildings and streets. Cairo At the time of Ismael Pasha, the throne of Egypt has a population of 270 thousand and extends from the area of the castle at the foot of Mokattam east to the cemetery of Azbekiya and the field of Ataba and advocacy West, and the neighborhoods of urban decay, which excited Ismail Pasha Ismail to make a revolution in the capital of the country to the ranks of European capitals, Paris East “Ismail Pasha asked Emperor Napoleon III that Haussmann, the world engineer, would plan Cairo in line with the new Paris plan. The project took five years to prepare, design and implement. In 1872, Khedive Ismail opened the Mohammed Ali Street, In 1875, the Opera House was established. It was one of the most important palaces built during that era. The palace of Abdeen, which began in 1863, became the seat of government instead of the castle during the reign of Khedive Ismail. And asked Ismail Pasha to keep the name of Abdeen for the palace and its territory. Later, the bridge of Qasr El Nile and Kobri Abu El Ela was established to connect Cairo with the island of Zamalek and Giza. The tram line was put into the streets of Cairo in 1896 to connect the green threshold with Abbasiyah.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, the city of Cairo witnessed a tremendous development as a result of the arrival of foreign businessmen. Many agencies and shops were established, which later became famous trademarks such as Jaroubi and others. It also expanded through linking Shubra in Cairo in 1902, Al-Azbekiyya began in 1903, and the growth of Al-Fajalah and Al-Tawfiqiah began. The establishment of the Garden City neighborhood in 1906 and the reconstruction of the Zamalek neighborhood began in 1905. Work began in the suburb of Heliopolis in 1906. The Maadi district was founded in 1907.
During the revolution of 1919 Cairo was the center of the protests, which were taken from the house of Saad Zaghloul (House of the Nation), and after the revolution and the completion of the establishment of Bank of Egypt, Cairo became the center and headquarters of many Egyptian companies and projects that grew up one by one, and reached Cairo in the 1920s high level In 1921 it was chosen to organize the Cairo conference, which brought together many leaders of Europe and the Middle East to discuss the repercussions of the First World War.  In 1925 it was awarded the Order of the most beautiful and cleanest city in the Mediterranean countries as the city of elegance in the design of its buildings Clean streets and regularity Traffic.
A picture of Allied leaders during the Cairo conference in 1943
In November 1943, during the Second World War, Cairo witnessed the meeting of Allied leaders at the Cairo Conference, which was attended by President Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, Chinese leader Chan Kai-shek and Turkish Prime Minister Ismat Inono. The conference marked the milestone of the Cairo Declaration of November 27, 1943 It called for the deployment of troops in France, the need for Japan’s withdrawal from the Chinese provinces, and the continued fighting until unconditional surrender.
On January 26, 1952, following the signing of the Ismaili site on 25 January between British forces and Egyptian police, unknown assailants set fire to the city of Cairo, which destroyed many public places, hotels, cinemas, shops and offices, and resulted in dozens of casualties. These events led to the resignation of the popular ministry of the delegation. The ministry took over Maher Pasha and declared the martial law in the country followed by the free officers in July as the beginning of the events of the July 23 revolution. Cairo was a dividing station in these events, although King Farouk and his entourage They were in Alexandria, but the siege of Abidine Palace and the seizure of the Egyptian army’s general command caused King Farouk to bow to the demands of the movement. He agreed to leave the country on July 26 and abdicate his son.
The aftermath of the 1967 war resulted in the evacuation of the population of the governorates of the Canal (Port Said, Ismailia, Suez), and Cairo was one of the most receiving governorates of the displaced, which was in large numbers, causing the outbreak of the real estate crisis at the time and rising prices increasingly, and resulted in the emergence of many residential areas such as facility Nasser and others
In the aftermath of the October War and the beginning of the era of economic openness, Cairo witnessed a large wave of emigration from the provinces for education or work. The demography of the city resulted in the demolition of old palaces to build residential buildings. In the 1980s and 1990s, Which resulted in Cairo losing most of its green areas. In the last quarter of the 20th century, the construction of new cities was witnessed. After the establishment of Nasser City in the era of Nasser and the city of May 15 and the city of peace under the Sadat era, the era of Mubarak witnessed the establishment of New Cairo and the city of Badr and Shorouq, and also saw the operation of the subway and the establishment of the ring road to be the largest road linking Greater Cairo together.
On January 25, 2011, a series of popular demonstrations and protests of a social and political nature were launched. Tahrir Square in Cairo was the most prominent venue for these demonstrations. Mohammed Mahmoud, Events of the Council of Ministers, events of Abbasid.
Following the taking of Mohamed Morsi the Presidency of the Republic took several measures and issued resolutions against him protests and demonstrations, most notably the events of the Federal Palace resulting in the victims, and on 30 June 2013 rallied mass demonstrations against the rule of Mohamed Morsi in the Egyptian fields, led by Tahrir Square demanding early presidential elections And the departure of the regime.
The Egyptian government has adopted a national strategic plan to invade the Sahara and establish new urban communities outside the Nile Valley and Deltah to be urban centers and areas of population and economic attraction with a view to redistributing the population and various activities in a balanced distribution throughout the Arab Republic of Egypt. “Which is the most important experiment in the world in the construction of new cities during the first half of the twentieth century, which dates back to the creation of 1905, and inspired by the planning of the garden cities built in Europe at the end of the nineteenth century, : 6: 1 In the wake of the revolution of July 23, 1952, Nasr City was established by a decision of President Gamal Abdel Nasser for the purpose of urban expansion in the desert region northeast of Cairo, East of the Abbasid neighborhood away from the agricultural land, and gave the start of the establishment of an integrated city in a civilized style and a distinctive way of urban construction called “Nasr City.” The initial planning and architectural designs of the city project were carried out by architect Syed Karim, on an area of more than 250 square kilometers and extending east from Suez / Suez Road to 51 Kilometers and intersecting with Katameya Road, west of Salah Salem Street, .  In May 1978, the 15th of May City, one of the first generation cities of the new urban communities established by the Ministry of Housing, was established. It is named after the correction revolution on 15 May 1971, and connects the city of May 15th in Cairo with two main roads: Corniche El Nil and Autostrad. Receiving its inhabitants only two years after it began to be implemented.  In 1979, the decision was made to establish the new city of Cairo, which expanded its neighborhoods known as Amal, Rahab, Madinaty, and the First, Third and Fifth Assemblies.  In 1982, the Prime Minister’s Decree was issued to establish the Badr City on the Cairo / Suez road on an area of 18454.43 feddans, of which 7018 feddans are residential areas and 2173 feddans are service areas.  In 1995, a republican decree was issued to establish Al-Shorouq City on an area of 16.11 thousand feddans, of which 9200 feddans is an urban block, with 5302 feddans added in 2015.