The Sphinx is a statue of a mythical creature with the body of a lion and a human head carved from limestone. It was probably originally covered with a layer of plaster and colored. The traces of the original colors are still visible next to one of its ears.

Located on the Giza plateau on the west bank of the Nile in Giza, Egypt, the Sphinx is also a guardian of the plateau. It is the oldest known monumental sculpture, about 73.5 meters long, 15 meters in length, 19.3 meters in length, and 20 meters above the surface of the head. It is believed that the ancient Egyptians built it during the reign of Pharaoh Khafre (2558-2532 BC), builder of the second pyramid in Giza.

It is believed that the statue of the Sphinx was a stone before King Khafra thought of his sculpture in the form of a statue. This statue is seen to the east, so that the originals were changed in the last century to agree with the Sphinx.

Opinions differed as to what this statue represents. The old view is that he represents King Khafra, combining the power of the lion with the wisdom of man. Some archaeologists believe that King Khufu is the one who built it where the face of the Sphinx resembles a statue of Khufu, (not like the statues of Khafra). Indeed, the question of who is the builder of the Sphinx is still open to research.

It is said to represent the sun god “Hor-m-Akht”, as evidenced by the temple facing the statue where he was performing the religious rituals. This has been firmly rooted in the minds of the Egyptians throughout their history. They considered it a statue of the god “Hor-em-Akht” (a Horus on the horizon), a picture of the god Atom, the greatest Egyptian goddess, the sun at sunset. It was visited by more than one of the pharaohs and the inscription on the occasion of the visit of them (Ra – Mas) the second in Cairo or Ramses II. And King Tutankhamun, who established a break next to the Sphinx. King Ramesses II was before Tutankhamun. Tutankhamun’s protector was Amenhotep IV, who changed his name to Akhenaten when he called for the unification of the gods under the name of the god Athen, who was symbolized by the disk of the sun. The religion did not continue in ancient Egypt and ended with his death. , Whose worship was common in Egypt and was the center of his temples in Luxor. It was the Roman era [?] Visited by Emperor Septimus Severus.

The nose of the Sphinx 

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The statue had a long nose but the statue had its nose, which is 1 meter wide. There are rumors that the nose was destroyed by Napoleon’s artillery. Other rumors accuse Britons, Mamluks or others. But the drawings by the Danish explorer Frederick Louis Nordin of the Sphinx in 1737 and published in 1755 in his book “The Trip to Egypt and Nubia” illustrate the statue without a nose, which is consistent with the view of Egyptologist Dr. Muhannad Abu Hadid.

Al-Maqrizi pointed out that the nose of the Sphinx was destroyed by the mystic who lived next to this idol, which was viewed by people as a reverence at that time. It was mentioned by Ali Pasha Mubarak in his book The Harmonic Plans.


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