Abu Simbel is an archaeological site located on the west bank of Lake Nasser about 290 km southwest of Aswan. One of the sites of the “Nubia Monuments” listed on UNESCO’s list of World Heritage sites. Which starts from the direction of the flow of the river from Abu Simbel to Phila (near Aswan).
The double temples were originally carved from the mountains during the reign of King Ramesses II in the 13th century BC, as permanent residence for him and Queen Nefertari, to commemorate his victory in the battle of Kadesh. However, in 1960 the compound was moved entirely to another location, on an artificial hill made of the dome structure, and above the Aswan High Dam reservoir.
It was necessary to move the temples to avoid being drowned during the construction of Lake Nasser, and form a huge artificial water reservoir after the construction of the High Dam in Aswan on the Nile. Abu Simbel is still one of the best places to attract tourism in Egypt.
Construction of the temple complex began around 1244 BC and lasted for approximately 21 years, until 1223 BC. Known as the Temple of Ramses, “beloved by Amun”, and it is one of the six temple rocks in Nubia that was erected during the reign of Ramses II, whose purpose is to influence neighboring countries in southern Egypt and also to strengthen the status of Egyptian religion in the region. Abu Simbel expresses some of the pride of Ramses II Abusembel differs from Abusembel displacement, which is an extension of Abu Simbel tourist, but about 366 km south of Aswan
Over time, the temples were abandoned and the sand was then covered. At that time during the 6th century BC, the sand covered the main temple statues up to the knees. The temple was forgotten until 1813, when the Swiss orientalist JL Burkhardt was found on the main temple corniche. Borchardt spoke of the discovery with his Italian explorer Giovanni Belloni, who traveled together to the site, but could not dig a doorway to the temple. Belonzi returned in 1817, but this time he succeeded in trying to enter the complex. Everything took values that he could carry with him. The tour guides link Abu Simbel’s legend to the fact that he was a small local boy who led the explorers back to the site early in the buried temple, which he saw from time to time in the shifting sand. In the end, Abu Simbel was named after the temple.
Move the collector
In 1959, the ancient southern ruins of this human civilization were under threat of rising Nile water, which was about to result from the construction of the Aswan High Dam.
The temple of Abu Simbel began in 1964 and cost $ 40 million. Between 1964 and 1968, the entire site was cut into large blocks (up to 30 tons and an average of 20 tons). It was dismantled and re-installed at a new site at a height of 65 m and 200 m above the river level, considered to be one of the greatest works in archaeological engineering . Some of the structures were rescued from under the waters of Lake Nasser. Today, thousands of tourists visit the temples do every day. A convoy of buses and escort cars leave twice a day from Aswan, the nearest city. Many visitors arrive by plane at the airport, which was built specifically for the temple complex.
Society consists of two temples. The largest is dedicated to the three gods of Egypt at the time. They are the shepherds of Harakti, Ptah and Ammon. Four large statues of Ramesses II stand out in the façade. The smaller temple was dedicated to the god of Hathor, who was embodied by Nefertari, the wife of Ramses who loved him most (and the Pharaoh had 200 wives and wives in total). The temple is now open to the public.
The construction of the Great Temple in Abu Simbel took nearly twenty years and was accomplished in about 24 years of the reign of Ramses the Great (which is equivalent to 1265 BC). It was dedicated to the god Amon, Raa-Harakti, Ptah, as well as Ramses. It is generally considered the finest and most beautiful temples that were commissioned during the reign of Ramses II, and one of the most beautiful in Egypt.
Four giant statues of the pharaoh, up to 20 m long with a double crown of the sea and tribal faces, to decorate the facade of the temple, which is 35 meters wide, and is crowned with a cornice in which 22 monkeys of praise, surrounded by the entrance of the sun worshipers. The huge statues were carved directly from the rocks in which the temple was located before being moved. All statues represent Ramesses II sitting on the throne and wearing the double crown of the sea and the tribal faces of Egypt. The statue to the left of the entrance was damaged by an earthquake, leaving only the bottom of the statue intact. The head and trunk can be seen under the feet of the statue.
Next to the legs of the huge statue, there are other statues that do not rise above the knees of the pharaoh. This depicts Nefertari, the main wife of Ramesses, Queen Mother Mutai, and has two sons Amon Har Hafshaf, Ramses, and six daughters of Bentanath, Paktamut, Nefertari, Meritamn, Neptawi and Ostnovert.
The entrance itself is crowned with a small incised inscription, representing two portraits of the king, worshiping the falcon with the head of a hermit, her statue standing in a large niche. This god holds in his right hand the holding of hieroglyphics, the art of Egyptian pharaonic writing used and the feather while holding in his left hand the meanings of the goddess of truth and justice, and this is not less than a plant of lasphrase, a plant of the giant Ramses II and the name of the throne used by Maat-ri. At the top of the building is a row of 22 monkeys with their arms raised in the air, presumably worshiping the rising sun. Other prominent features of the facade of the building are a painting of the marriage of Ramses from the daughter of King Hatsili III, which led to peace between Egypt and Hetiz.
The inner part of the temple has the same triangular design followed by most ancient Egyptian temples, with a decrease in the size of rooms from the entrance to the temple. The temple is a very complex and unusual structure due to the many side chambers. The Hypostyle Hall (sometimes called Brownus) is 18 meters long and 16.7 meters wide and supported by eight massive columns Osirid depicts Ramses the Challenger associated with the god Osiris, the god of hell, and refers to the eternal nature of the pharaoh. The massive statues along the wall on the left, bearing the white crown of the tribal face, while those on the opposite side recoil the double crown of the sea and the psyche. On the lower part of the walls of Brounhaus, pictures of scenes from the battles the governor has staged in military campaigns are displayed. The statue is for the Battle of Kadesh on the Orontes River, which today is called Syria, in which the king of Egypt fought against the king of Assyrians. The most famous inscription shows the king on the dart wagon firing arrows against the fugitives of the enemies who are taken captive. And other scenes showing Egyptian victories in Libya and Nuba.
From the Hypostyle Hall we enter the second hall, the pillars, which have four pillars decorated with beautiful scenes of displays of the gods. There are pictures of Ramesses and Nefertari with the holy boats of Amon and my shepherd. This room gives access to a transverse lobby in the center and from there is the entrance to the temple. Here, on a black wall, there are pieces of rock sculptures of four seated statues: Ra-Horakhti, Ramses the King, and the gods Amun Ra and Bat Ra Horakherty, Amun Ra, and his father were the main gods of that period, and the centers of the sect in Heliopolis, Taiba and Memphis respectively .
The temple axis was placed in place by the ancient Egyptian engineer in a way that twice a year on October 22 and February 21, the temple’s sunlight penetrates and casts light on the statue and appears on the back wall, except for the statue of Bhattah. The god was associated with hell, which always remained in darkness. These dates are said to be suitable for the king’s birthday and on the day of his coronation, but there is no evidence to support this, although it is perfectly logical to assume that some of these dates are related to a major event, such as the Jubilee celebration of the 30th anniversary of Pharaoh’s rule. In fact, according to calculations carried out on the basis of the solar rise of the star Sirius (Sothis) and inscriptions found by archaeologists, the date had to be October 22. This image of the king was enhanced and revitalized by the solar energy of the star, and the great Ramses can take his place next to the Ammon of Ra and the Shepherd.
Because of the temple’s relocation, it is widely believed that this event is now happening a day late than it originally was.
The temple of Hathor and Nefertari, also known as the Little Temple, was built about 100 meters to the northeast of the temple of Ramses II and was dedicated to the goddess Hathor Hathor, Ramses II, and his wife Nefertari. In fact, this is the second time in ancient Egyptian history in which a temple is dedicated to the Queen. The first time was when Akhenaten dedicated a temple to his wife the great Queen Nefertiti. The rock cut in the façade is decorated with two sets of giants and separated by the large gate. The height of the statues is just over ten meters for the king and the queen. On the other side of the gate are statues of the king, wearing the white crown of Upper Egypt (huge for the south) and the double crown (huge to the north); these statues are surrounded by statues of the queen and the king. What is truly surprising is that for the first time in Egyptian art, the statue of the king and the queen are equal in size.
Traditionally the statues of the queens are standing next to the pharaoh, but they are no longer taller than his knees. This exception to the rule has long testified to the special importance that Nefertari attaches to Ramses, who went to Abu Simbel with his beloved wife in the 24th year of his reign. In the great temple of the king there are small statues of princes and princesses alongside their parents. In this case it is in a balanced position: on the south side (on the left when facing the gate), from left to right, the princes of Maryam and Merir, the princesses of Meritamán and Hentai, the princes of Riharonmuff, and Amon Har Hatchf, while they are on the northern side, reverse. The small temple design is a simplified version of the Great Temple.
In this case, they are not the columns of the Osirid that show the king, but are decorated with scenes of the Queen playing with the Cinsterm (sacred instrument of the goddess Hathor), together with the goddess Horus, Khnum , Khonsu, Thoth, and the goddess Hathor, Isis, Maat, the death of Asher, Satis, and Taort; in one scene of Ramses it offers flowers or incense burn.  And that the main columns bear the face of the goddess Hadeer; this type of column is known as the Haiderk. And in the hall of the pillars the prominence shows the deification of the king, the destruction of his enemies in the north and south (in these scenes the king accompanied by his wife), and the queen offers offerings to the goddess Hathor and death. The Hypostyle Hall is followed by a lounge which offers access through three large doors. On the south and north walls of this room there are two poetic highlights – for the king and his entourage to offer papyrus and plants to the seeds which is described as a cow on a ship sailing in a pack of papyrus leaves. On the western wall, Ramses II and Nefertari present performances of the god Horus and the goddesses Katraktas – Satis, Anubis, and Khanom.
The temple rock cut, the two adjoining rooms are connected to the front porch and lined with the temple axis. The lower prominence of the small side walls shows the scenes of the presentation of documents to the various gods, whether presented by the pharaoh or the queen. On the back wall, which lies to the west along the axis of the temple, there is a sanctifying sanctuary as a holy cow, and it seems to emerge from the mountain: God is described as the mistress of the temple dedicated to her and to Queen Nefertari, which is closely linked to the goddess.
Each temple has a special priest who represents the king in daily religious ceremonies. In theory, Pharaoh should be the only priest to perform daily religious rites in various temples throughout Egypt. In fact, it was the High Priest who played this role. To reach this position, it was necessary to reach this center, expanding the teaching of art and science, just as Pharaoh was. Reading, writing, engineering, computing, engineering, astronomy, space measurements, time measurement are all part of the learning process. For example, the priests of Heliopolis became the guardians of sacred knowledge and gained the reputation of the wise.