Tutankhamun was one of the 18th Egyptian pharaohs in the ancient history of Egypt. Pharaoh was Egypt from 1334 to 1325 BC. In the era of the modern state. Tutankhamun is considered one of the most famous pharaohs for reasons not related to his achievements or victories, as is the case with many Pharaohs, but for other reasons that are historically important, most notably the discovery of his tomb and treasures without any damage. And the mystery surrounding the circumstances of his death, since many considered the death of Pharaoh at a very early age is abnormal, especially with the presence of traces of fractures in the bones of the thigh and skull, and the marriage of his minister from his widow after his death and installed himself Pharaoh. All these mysterious events, and the heavy use of the legend of the Pharaohs curse associated with the tomb of Tutankhamun, used in films and video games made Tutankhamun the most famous pharaohs of mysteries and questions still unanswered, considered by some to be the oldest assassinations in human history. Tutankhamun died young and was buried in his tomb – Tomb 62 – in the Valley of the Kings.
Tutankhamun was 9 years old when he became Pharaoh of Egypt and his name in the ancient Egyptian language means “the living image of God Amon,” the great old Egyptian goddess. Tutankhamun lived in a transitional period in the history of Ancient Egypt where he came after Akhenaten, who tried to unify the ancient gods of Egypt in the form of the One God on Sunday. In his reign, he returned to worship the ancient gods of Egypt. His tomb was discovered in 1922 in the Valley of the Kings by British archaeologist Howard Carter. The discovery triggered a widespread media uproar in the world.
Tutankhamun the son of King Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV). The Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities announced in April 2010 that, based on DNA tests, it was found that Tutankhamun was the son of King Akhenaten.
Tutankhamun became King of Egypt as a child after the death of his brother Semenakh Ka Ra, and he married Ankh Essen Amon.
Tutankhamun died in mysterious and unknown circumstances, after which his former minister Ay, who had married Ankh Amun Amon, widow of Tutankhamun, ruled after him.
During the reign of Tutankhamun, a revolt began from the hill of Amarna against the former Pharaoh Akhenaten, who moved the capital from Taibah to his new capital, the sister of Attoun in Minya, and attempted to unify the many ancient gods of Egypt, including the god Amon in the form of the One God. In the year 1331 BC. In the third year of the reign of Tutankhamun, who was 11 years old and influenced by the minister to lift the ban on the worship of the gods.
There is a widespread belief that the death of Tutankhamun was not for satisfactory reasons, but may be the result of an assassination by Minister Khaperkapro Rai. There are many evidence provided by the believers in this theory, for example the marriage of Minister Khaprkopro Rai of Tutankhamun’s widow, On a pharaonic stamp bearing the name of I and Ankh Sun Amon widow of Tutankhamun and also there is a letter sent by Amen Amen Tutankhamen widow to the King of the Hittites ask him to send one of his sons for the purpose of marriage after the death of her husband and the king of the Hittites to send one of his sons to marry the widow of Tutankham Ammon died before he entered the land of Egypt and there He was assassinated driven probably masterminded by the minister Khپrkhپro Ra Aye, who apparently was planning to seize the throne of Egypt so the murder of King Tutankhamun killed son of the king of the Hittites, but these hypotheses and no conclusive evidence to prove that all of these theories.
It is worth mentioning that the historical evidence indicates the existence of two ministers of Tutankhamun, one of which was mentioned and the other named Hormehb. There is evidence that after the death of Tutankhamun, the minister received the reins of government for a short period to be replaced by Second Minister Hormehb, which was destroyed most Evidence of Tutankhamun’s reign and Minister Ay and this confirm some conspiracy theory and the death of Tutankhamun due to malaria that was prevalent in the south.
Reasons for his death
For a long time, Tutankhamun’s death was a controversial issue, and there were many conspiracy theories that suggested he was not dead but had been killed in an assassination. On March 8, 2005, as a result of the use of three-dimensional CT scans on the mummy of Tutankhamun, Egyptian archaeologist Zahi Hawass said there was no evidence that Tutankhamun had been assassinated and added that the hole in his skull was not for a reason A blow to the head as previously thought, but was the events of this hole after death for the purpose of embalming and explained Zahi Hawass fracture of the left thigh bone, which has long been linked to the theory of assassination as a result of a fracture in the thigh bone was exposed to Tutankhamun before his death and the infection may result from This fracture has caused his death.
Recent analysis also showed that the bone of the capillary cavity of Tutankhamun was not complete. The length of Tutankhamun was 170 cm and the length of the skull was longer than the normal length, leading some to suggest Marfan’s syndrome as a cause of early death. Dominant human genes.
The final report of the team of Egyptian archaeologists was that the cause of death was septicemia due to the fracture of the femur that was exposed to Tutankhamun, which led to gangrene, which is the death of cells and tissues and the breakdown of enzymes due to dead muscles due to lack of oxygen through blood .
Prior to this report, there were attempts to determine the cause of death using x-rays on the mummy of Tutankhamun at Liverpool University and the University of Michigan in 1968 and 1978 respectively. The two universities discovered a dark spot under the skull of Tutankhamun from the back, The brain resulting in the spread of the hypothesis that he had received a blow in the head led to bleeding in the brain and then death.
In a study published in March 2010, the reason for the death of Tutankhamun was the incidence of malaria and leg fractures. The study also indicated that some genetic diseases were caused by inherited genetic abnormalities in the family.
Discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamun
The so-called Valley of the Kings, located on the west bank of the Nile near Taibeh and for 450 years during the reign of the modern state from the history of the ancient Egyptians from 1539 to 1075 BC was a graveyard for the pharaohs of that period. In this rocky valley, 20,000 square meters 27 royal tombs belonging to three families – the 18th Egyptian family, the nineteenth Egyptian family and the twentieth Egyptian family – were discovered to this day.
The valley is believed to contain at least 30 other tombs that have not yet been discovered. The tombs discovered in the Valley of the Kings Until now, according to the chronological order of the Pharaonic rule, belong to Thutmose I, Amenhotep II, Tut Ankh Amon and Hormehib, they are from the 18th Egyptian family, Ramses I, Citi I, Ramses II, Emmonsis, Citi II, and Sptah. They are from the nineteenth Egyptian family and six Nakhte, Ramses III and Ramses IV Ramses V and Ramses IX are from the twentieth Egyptian family. Other tombs of unknown pharaohs are still trying to get to know them.
The construction of the tomb of the pharaoh usually began days after the inauguration of Pharaonica on Egypt. The construction usually took decades. Workers used simple tools such as ax to dig long grooves and form small rooms in the valley. Over time, there were tombs built over other tombs. Mostly to the blockage of the vestibules leading to the tomb of the older pharaoh, this lack of systematic planning was the main reason for the survival of these treasures and not being robbed for thousands of years.
On November 4, 1922, when the archaeologist and specialist in the history of ancient Egypt, British historian Howard Carter was excavating at the entrance to the tunnel leading to the Tomb of Ramses VI in the Valley of the Kings observed the existence of a large cellar and continued careful exploration until he entered the room that includes the tomb of Tutankhamun and was on the walls of the room Which contains the mausoleum wonderful drawings to tell the story of the story of the departure of Tutankhamun to the world of the dead and the scene was so wonderful to the world Howard Carter, who was looking at the room through a hole and a candle in his hand and said his assistant asked him “Can you see anything?” Carter replied, “Yes, I see great things.”
On February 16, 1923, Howard Carter (1874 – 1939) was the first human being in more than 3,000 years to walk across the floor of the room containing the coffin of Tutankhamun. Carter noted that there was a wooden box with inscriptions inlaid with gold in the middle of the room. When he lifted the box, he noticed that the box was covered with a second box decorated with gold-plated inscriptions. When the second box was raised, he noticed that the second box was covered with a third box. Which was covered with a thick layer of carved stone in the form of a statue of Tutankhamun. When he lifted this stone cover, Carter arrived at the main golden coffin that was in the shape of a statue of Tutankhamun. This golden coffin covered other golden coffins in the form of statues of the young pharaoh. Carter saw the difficulty of lifting the third golden shroud, which covered the mummy of Tutankhamun from the mummy. Carter thought that exposing the shroud to the heat of the summer sun of Egypt would be enough to separate the golden shroud from the mummy, but his attempts failed and in the end he had to cut the golden shroud to two halves to reach the mummy Which was wrapped in layers of silk and after the removal of the cloth shroud found the mummy Tutankhamun full of adornment of necklaces and rings and the crown and the stick were all pure gold, to remove these artifacts had to excavate team to separate the skull and bones of the joints of the joints and after the removal of the team re-installed Of the skeleton of the mummy and put it in a wooden coffin.
The scientists took the mummy of Tutankhamun from her grave and placed it on the sophisticated pivotal tomography table for a quarter of an hour in 2005 to obtain a three-dimensional image of a mummy more than 3,000 years old. The results of the medical examination ruled out that the young pharaoh had died, but could not accurately determine the way he died in 1323 BC. The pictures revealed that King Tutankhamun suffered a fracture in his left thigh, probably because of an accident, which later resulted in a fatal disease that could not be determined. The photos also provided an unprecedented glimpse into the life of the young pharaoh, one of the most famous kings of ancient Egypt, among whom he was healthy because of his good nutrition despite the relatively shifting structure of 170 cm at the time of his death. For example, the first scientist discovered dead by poisoning and some believe that it is because of food and others believe that this is because of the curse of the pharaohs
The importance of the treasures of Tutankhamun
The importance of King Tutankhamun’s collection is attributed to many reasons. The first is that the treasure of King Tutankhamun is the most complete royal treasure ever found. It consists of three hundred and eighty-five pieces, including the magnificent golden mask and three coffins in the form of man, The other two are of gilded wood. Second: The luggage is due to the family eighteen months and the most beautiful era of the modern state, where the country was opened to the territories of the ancient Near East thanks to military campaigns and trade relations from the export and import of resources and products manufactured and the activity of craftsmen and artists. Finally, this huge group has remained in Egypt, showing how the royal tomb was prepared and prepared. There are the daily necessities of life, such as dolls and toys, and then a collection of completed furniture, tools and military equipment, and statues of the kings related to the burial of the king and the rituals of the king, Made of silver and copper, all of which are now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Fourth: From this great treasure or collection, we learn a lot about the life of the king and the pill of hunting and his relationship with his wife, “Ankh Asan Amun,” who is believed to be his relative, in addition to knowing the most important works and his entourage, and finally the throne of the only throne that reached us from the civilization of the ancient Egyptians. ]