The book of the dead is a collection of religious documents and funerary texts that were used in ancient Egypt, to be a guide to the dead on his journey to the other world, used from the beginning of the modern era of the ancient Egyptian state (around 1550 BC) to about 50 BC. The term “book” is the closest term to describe this vast collection of texts consisting of a number of magical spells aimed at helping the journey of a dead person to the Hereafter. It was written by many priests during the period of about 1000 years.
It is considered the oldest book to be completed by us, Don in the era of building the Great Pyramid, a copy of which is still preserved in the British Museum. In which the calls of the gods and songs and prayers, and then described the death of the dead in the other world of the account and the punishment and reward. They built the huge temples beside the tombs which are no less magnificent and magnificent, where they believed in the resurrection and the return of the spirit that they called in two closely related forms. They also made sure to put all the things of the deceased from food and jewelry and everything he loved in his life with him in his tomb where The soul of the dead can eat and drink from it when it returns to the body, and before it seeks another life.
These talismans and magical amulets – in the so-called pyramids texts of the ancient state – were embossed on the walls of ordinary tombs, pyramids or on the stone or wooden coffin placed beside the mummy to serve as a guide to the dead on his journey to the other world. Where they were instructions to enable the deceased to overcome the obstacles and risks that will stray during his journey to other life, and also shows the means used to complete this journey successfully without any abuse.
At the same time remember the names of the gods that will be encountered in this way, as forgetting the name of one of the gods is not in his favor, especially that within the receipt of his account in the Hereafter will stand before a court of 40 others.
In the Middle Kingdom and the modern state, the texts of the Book of the Dead were written on papyrus and placed next to the mummy in the coffin. Every old Egyptian was keen to entrust the priests to prepare a book for his dead, mentioning his name and the name of his father and the name of his mother and his job in this world. In preparation for the day of his death and the processing of the ritual transferred to his tomb.
An example of what is written in the book
Book to advance the day
One of the essential parts of the Book of the Dead is a du’aa ‘by which the deceased defends himself (and it is called confession of negation):
“Peace be upon you, O Great God, the God of truth.” I have come to you, my God, subject to the witness of your majesty. I have come to you with my truth, and I have given up the falsehood. I have not darkened anyone, nor have I taken the path of those who are astray. I did not steal any of the temples and I did not commit infidelity and I did not commit anything sacrosanct. And I have not ravened money for haram, nor have I violated the sanctity of the dead, Taher Na. As long as innocent of sin, Vadjalna winners of my goodness. ”
Contents of the book
The Book of the Dead by the ancient Egyptians shows us the religious beliefs that have preoccupied them throughout their lives. Death was not only an inseparable part of life, but at that time people had a different concept of death and other life than we think today. And the Book of the Dead has been accompanied by the guidance and guidance of the dead, help him to the Baath and move to the Hereafter where he lived as he lived on the ground but without disease and fatigue and not old age, but also in the afterlife companion of the gods eat and drink with them on some occasions.
The goal of the dead or dying was to reach eternal life in the other world, and it was not logical for some people and people of those ages. The concept of living in the afterlife is that the dead who did good in his life and was honest and honest helps the poor, hungry and thirsty, and helps the widows and orphans, such a man lived according to what the gods wanted him to “a life together and a system of justice,” a symbol of this ancient Egyptian regime God of truth and cosmic order.
The book contains several chapters, describing and pointing to the following:
Protect the dead from devils, evil spirits, snakes and others
You know the dead when the path to the Hereafter
Help him cross the sea of fire, and the hardships that threaten him
Allowing him to oscillate between the earthly world and the other world
Help him to live in the Hereafter
Help him get water, food, receive gifts and sacrifice, and give it to the other world
It helps him to know the places in the Hereafter and to remember the names of the gods and the important names (such as the name of the door of the Hereafter), and help him to know the doors and their names,
Although there are some differences between our current beliefs about the afterlife, there are similarities between our beliefs and those of the ancient Egyptians. The old Egyptians believed in the Baath and appear before a judicial body composed of 42 judges, and the deceased recognizes before them that he did not steal, and did not kill anyone, and did not lie, did not, and did not do anything wrong in his life in this world.
… I did not cause harm to anyone,
I did not force any of my relatives to do bad.
I did not insist on bad work on good work,